Sample questions

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Psychology

VCAA Key Knowledge Organisation of long-term memory including declarative (episodic and semantic) and procedural memory, and semantic network theory
Question Collins and Quillian’s (1969) research showed that it took longer for someone to agree with the statement that ‘a canary has skin’, compared to the statement that ‘a canary can sing’. With a definition of semantic network theory, explain why this would occur. (3 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide
Answer:

– Semantic network theory suggests that concepts (nodes) are linked meaningfully in a hierarchical structure.

– The statement that ‘a canary can sing’ only requires the person to retrieve properties (singing) stored at that node (canary) [alternatively: linked closely to that node], therefore, it can be verified relatively quickly.

– The statement that ‘a canary has skin’ requires the person to retrieve information that is linked further away (higher up in the hierarchy); making the inference that a canary is an animal, and that animals have skin. Therefore, the statement takes a relatively longer time to verify.

 Marking protocol:

One mark for each of the above points.

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Biology

VCAA Key Knowledge A qualitative treatment of changing allele frequencies in a population and the consequences: – environmental selection pressures, gene flow, genetic drift (founder and bottleneck effects)
Question The Tasmanian devil is highly susceptible to the Devil Facial Tumour Disease, resulting in facial cancers and ultimately death. There is evidence that this disease is passed from one devil to the next via contact and that there are few devils resistant to this condition. Explain how this susceptibility may be linked to a population bottleneck from the past. (3 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide
Answer:

– A population bottleneck in the past would most likely have decreased the population of Tasmanian devils and led to reduced variation in their gene pool.

– Reduced variation means that the gene that codes for resistance to the tumour may not be present or only present in extremely low numbers.

– As the Devils are exposed to the tumour, there would be few, if any, individuals with the gene that codes for resistance and hence it has a significant impact on the population.

 Marking protocol:

One mark for each of the above points.

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Health and Human Development

VCAA Key Knowledge The role of Australia’s governments in promoting healthy eating through: – the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults
Question The Dietary guidelines for Australian Adults includes Guideline 5: Care for your food; prepare and store it safely. Outline how Guideline 5 promotes the three dimensions of health of Australian adults. (3 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide
Answer:

– Physical health: Preparing and storing food safely reduces the risk of bacterial infection and this protects the body’s systems from infection and disease.

– Social health: Preparing and storing food safely allows people to then enjoy this food together without the fear of bacterial contamination and promotes development of relationships and social interaction.

– Mental health: Preparing and storing food safely gives people the confidence that the food they are consuming is safe to eat and will not lead to illness, thus reducing levels of stress and anxiety.

Marking protocol:

One mark for each of the above points.

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Physical Education

VCAA Key Knowledge Perceived benefits and potential harms to the athlete of legal and illegal substances and methods that enhance performance, including altitude training, creatine supplementation, enhancement of oxygen transfer, gene doping, hormones (including steroids, erythropoietin and growth hormones), diuretics, and masking agents, stimulants and beta blockers. Chronic adaptations to the cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems to training.
Scenario Recently, a number of AFL clubs have been travelling overseas to participate in altitude training as part of their pre-season. It has been noted that these camps cost clubs up to $850,000 to run, for benefits that appear to last between two to four weeks when they return closer to sea level.
Question 1 Identify three chronic adaptations that occur as a result of altitude training. (3 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide Answer:

– Increased red blood cell count/haemoglobin levels.
– Increased oxygen uptake in the lungs.
– Increased blood vessel density at a muscular level.- Increased erythropoietin levels.

Marking protocol:

One mark for any of the above points, to a maximum of three.

Question 2 Explain how one of the adaptations identified above improve performance closer to sea level.(3 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide Answer:

– Increased red blood cell count means an increase in haemoglobin levels. Therefore, the blood is able to transport more oxygen to the muscles.

– This allows for more oxygen to be extracted to break down carbohydrates/fats to resynthesise ATP faster.

– This then allows athletes to work longer at a higher intensity aerobically.

OR

– An increase in oxygen uptake in the lungs means more oxygen is available to diffuse into the blood, which means more oxygen is able to be transported to the muscles.

– This allows for more oxygen to be extracted to break down carbohydrates/fats to resynthesise ATP faster.

– This then allows athletes to work longer at a higher intensity aerobically.

OR

– An increase in blood vessel density at the muscular level means that there is a greater surface area for gas exchange to occur.

– This allows for more oxygen to be extracted to break down carbohydrates/fats to resynthesise ATP faster.

– This then allows athletes to work longer at a higher intensity aerobically.

OR

– Increased EPO means that more red blood cells are being produced, which will increase red blood cell count, which leads to higher haemoglobin levels. Therefore, the blood is able to transport more oxygen to the muscles.

– This allows for more oxygen to be extracted to break down carbohydrates/fats to resynthesise ATP faster.

– This then allows athletes to work longer at a higher aerobic intensity.

Marking protocol:

One mark for each of the above points as denoted within each paragraph, to a maximum of three marks.

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Further Mathematics

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Mathematical Methods (CAS)

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Business Management

VCAA Key Knowledge – Management structures – The need for, and process of, policy development and its application
Scenario Superior Sports Changes Structure Superior Sports CEO, Bob Hagen, has announced sweeping changes to the organisation’s overarching structure. “Based on the new 3 year strategy, our structure has had to shift accordingly,” Mr. Hagen stated. “Having understood our new strategy of putting customers front and centre, we are changing our operations to suit various customer preferences.” Superior Sports services a wide range of customers, from local customers, large sporting groups and international organisations, and has shifted its focus to better manage each specific customer interaction.
Question Explain, using the case study, why ‘Structure follows Strategy’. (2 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide
Answer:

– Structure follows strategy as the organisation must firstly have a clear idea of what actions it will take to achieve their objectives. It can then logically group employees together to help achieve this.

– Superior Sports has set a strategy of putting customers first to improve its profit. In identifying the need to meet their various customer segments’ needs, Superior Sports has shifted towards a customer division structure to ensure their structure assists in meeting their long term strategy.

Marking protocol:

One mark for each of the above points.

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VCAA Key Knowledge – The division of law-making power between state and Commonwealth parliaments under the Commonwealth Constitution, including specific (concurrent and exclusive) and residual powers,  and the impact of Section 109
Question Using examples, explain the difference between exclusive and concurrent powers. (4 marks)
Mark-by-mark answer guide
Answer:

– Exclusive powers are specific law making powers listed in the constitution that can only be exercised by the Commonwealth. This is because the constitution has either specifically removed these powers from the state or has dictated that only the Commonwealth parliament can legislate in these areas.

– For example, the power to coin money is listed in s51(xii) and made exclusive by s115. (note that there are other possible examples that could be given here)

– Conversely, concurrent powers are specific law making powers that are listed in the constitution that can be exercised by both the state parliaments and the Commonwealth parliament.

– An example would include the power to enact laws regarding marriage in s51(xxi)

Marking protocol:

One mark for each of the above points.

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